Moderne Griechische Geschichte, Politiker
Our constitution does not copy the laws of neighbouring states. Its administration favours the many instead of the few; this is why it is called a democracy. Thucydides, Pericles's Funeral Oration
For the first time the nation surveys the hideous spectacle of its ignorance and trembles in measuring with the eye the distance separating it from its ancestors’ glory. This painful discovery, however, does not precipitate the Greeks into despair: We are the descendants of Greeks, they implicitly told themselves, we must try to become again worthy of the name, or we must not bear it. Adamantios Korais before a Parisian audience in 1803
Το ελληνικό Γένος αν σώθηκε ως τα σήμερα, αν επέζησε ύστερα από τόσους εχτρούς - εξωτερικούς κι εσωτερικούς, προπάντων εσωτερικούς - ύστερα από τόσους αιώνες κακομοιριά, σκλαβιά και πείνα, το χρωστάει όχι στη λογική - θυμηθείτε τους τρείς εμποράκους που ίδρυσαν τη Φιλική Εταιρεία, θυμηθείτε το 21 - το χρωστάει στο θάμα. Στην ακοίμητη σπίθα που καίει μέσα στα σωθικά της Ελλάδας. Νίκος Καζαντζάκης
It is strange that Greece who invented Democracy was a Democracy for only 1-2 centuries (like most other countries). For a short period it was the first Democracy for free men in Athens (not for women and slaves). Then it was ruled by kings, by emperors during the Roman occupation period. It was governed by emperors and religious Despots without any election possibility in Byzantium. It was then occupied by Turks. It was governed by foreign Kings, by German Nazis, a few years by a military regime. The way towards real Democracy started with the 1821 liberation of Greece after more than 400 years Turkish Occupation.
THE CONSTITUTION OF GREECE (The Syntagma )
Ioannis Antonios Kapodistrias (Conte Giovanni Antonio Capo D'istria ) (11-2-1776 -9-10-1831)
Ioannis Makrigiannis (Memoirs in Greek), Andreas Metaxas (1786 -19-9-1860) first Constitutional Prime Minister, Dimitris Kallergis
Charilaos Trikoupis (1832 1896) Dustuhos Eptoheusamen (1.12.1893)
Ioannis Metaxas (13.4.1936 29.1.1941), Dictator similar situation as in many other European countries this period, Idea of Third Hellenic Civilization. Many still are his fans because he is associated with the victory over the Italians. He said the NO but heroic was not the "NO" to "Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini" but the action of the Greek soldiers in the front. At least it was a correct and a good decision (A Metaxas Website)
Panagiotis Kanellopoulos (1902, 1986), Politician, Author
1967 1974 Military Government (supported by the United States, similar to Chile), a dark period for Greece.
Political system with 2 main political Groups, Nea Dimokratia and PASOK (panhelenic socialistic movement party) that were dominated by 2 families. 1) George Papandreou the elder and his son Andreas (and his son) and 2) Konstantinos Karamanlis with his synonymous nephew and current MP. (Similar situations as in the US with the Bush or the Kennedy family). Greece is one of few countries in Europe were Church/Religion has a strong influence in politics, probably more than in Poland, but there is a very slow improvement).
Konstantinos Karamanlis, (8.3.1908 Proti/Serres 23.4.1998 ) most influential and important Greek politician of the last century (Prime Minister, President). The integration of Greece in the most powerful financial organization of the world the European Union (1979) against the socialists (Swedish Model) was a milestone in modern Greek history. There are some who criticize his government in the period 1955-1963. Κωνσταντίνος Καραμανλής
Kostas Simitis, Socialistic - replacement of the Drachma by the EURO.
Politicians or Persons with political influence of Greek Origin outside Greece
Constantine Phaulkon (Konstantin Gerakis, his name in Thai วิชาเยนทร์; * 1647 Kefalonia † 5. June 1688 Lopburi/Thailand), adventurer and chancelor in the kingdom Ayutthaya in Thailand.
Napoleon Bonaparte ?.. The Greek Origin of Napoleon the Great
Lucas Miltiades Miller (15.9.1824 . 4.12.1902) 1891 the first Greek-American elected to the U.S. Congress (Info)
George Tenet, former CIA Director
John Cannis , Canada
Jim Karygiannis, Canada
Spiro Theodore Agnew (Spiro Theodore Anagnostopoulos) (9.11.1918-17.9.1996), 39th US Vice President (a not very glorious story). The Washington Post newspaper compared his election by President Nixon similar to the decision of Caligula to give his horse Icinatus the title of a Senator.
Michael Stanley Dukakis, (3.11.1933) former Governor of Massachusetts. Did he fail to become a president of the United States just for this discussion?: “Governor, if Kitty Dukakis were raped and murdered, would you favor an irrevocable death penalty for the killer?" Dukakis responded, "No, I don't..”
George Stephanopoulos adviser of former President Bill Clinton (with some significant contribution for his first election)
George Argyros, US Ambassador to Spain
Harry Vaios Spanos (8.5.1926 Newport, Sullivan County, N.H.-18.3.1995 Newport, Sullivan County, N.H.) Democrat. Lawyer; member of New Hampshire state senate; defeated, 1956; delegate to Democratic National Convention from New Hampshire, 1960 (alternate), 1964, 1972; member of New Hampshire state house of representatives; candidate for Governor of New Hampshire, 1976; probate judge in New Hampshire, 1980-95.
George Christopher (8.12.1907 Arcadia Greece - 14. 9. 2000 California) (George Christopheles ) Alternate delegate to Republican National Convention from California, 1956; Presidential Elector for California, 1956; mayor of San Francisco, Calif., 1956-64; defeated, 1951; candidate in primary for U.S. Senator from California, 1958; candidate for Lieutenant Governor of California, 1962; candidate in primary for Governor of California, 1966.
Mike Bilirakis, US House of Representatives (FL)
Phil Angelides California State Treasurer's Office
George Gekas, US House of Representatives (PA)
Olympia J. Snowe, US Senate (ME) 1978 - Elected to Congress as the youngest Republican woman, and the first Greek-American woman, ever elected to Congress
Paul Spyros Sarbanes, (3.2.1933 Salisbury, Wicomico County) US Senate (MD) . Member of Maryland state house of delegates, 1967-70; U.S. Representative from Maryland, 1971-77 (4th District 1971-73, 3rd District 1973-77); U.S. Senator from Maryland, 1977-; delegate to Democratic National Convention from Maryland, 2000. .
Maria Vassilakou (23. 2 1969 Athens) Member of the Austrian Greens http://www.vassilakou.at/
George Souris, Australia, Deputy Leader of the New South Wales National Party
Andrew Manatos (1947) a former US Assistant Secretary of Commerce
KINGS and QUEENS
Strange enough but there are still Kings and Queens today around in some countries (probably just to fill some journals and newspapers with their stories interesting maybe for some housewives). The Greeks also had a King once upon a time.
Prince Philip husband of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, his other titles are duke of Edinburgh, earl of Merioneth and baron Greenwich, or Philip Mountbatten, (former name Philip, prince of Greece and Denmark)
Sophia, the wife of Juan Carlos of Spain was a former princess of Greece. (I think that both are actually descendants of the Queen Victoria of the once Great Empire) for Royalists the pair married in Greece in 14 May 1962 and more details can be found here
The Greeks Manolis Glezos (on a stamp from the Soviet Union) who on the night of May 30th 1941 and Apostolis Santas tore down the Nazi flag on the Acropolis: WWII : German Occupation forces on the Acropolis (Erechtheion) , A dark moment: German Flag on the Acropolis , The Greek goverment against this action by the Soviets.
Demitrios Tsafendas the man who killed the racist prime minister of South Africa Hendrik Verwoerd in 6-September-1966
http://www.guide2womenleaders.com/Greece.htm Women in Leadership - Greece
http://www.guide2womenleaders.com/Greece_Heads.htm Women Head of the State Greece
http://www.guide2womenleaders.com/greece_substates.htm Women in Substates Greece
In Greek from the NEA Newspaper: Greek History (1900-1975)