Charles Edouard Guillaume (February 15, 1861 – May 13, 1938) received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1920 in recognition of the service he had rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys.

He discovered alloys which he called "invar" and "elinvar" which were useful in building precision instruments.

Guillaume worked with Kristian Birkeland. He served at the Observatoire de Paris—Section de Meudon. He conducted several experiments with thermostatic measurements at the observatory. He was the first to determine the correct temperature of space.

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