
(Including preliminary set of links of images, biographies (information) and autographs and other stamp images) 2009 Charles K. Kao Willard S. Boyle , George E. Smith 2008 Yoichiro Nambu Makoto Kobayashi , Toshihide Maskawa 2007 "for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance" 2006 John C. Mather, George F. Smoot "for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation" 2005 THEODOR HÄNSCH (Biography), JOHN HALL (Biography) for "contributions to the development of laserbased precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique", ROY GLAUBER (Biography) "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence" 2004 DAVID JONATHAN GROSS (Biography), HUGH DAVID POLITZER (Biography) and FRANK WILCZEK (Biography) for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction 2003 The prize is being awarded jointly to: ALEXEI ALEXEEVICH ABRIKOSOV (Biography) , VITALY LAZAREVICH GINZBURG (Biography) and ANTHONY J. LEGGETT (Biography) for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids 2002 The prize is being awarded with one half jointly to: RAYMOND DAVIS JR. (Biography), and MASATOSHI KOSHIBA (Biography) for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos and the other half to: RICCARDO GIACCONI for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic Xray sources 2001 The prize is being awarded jointly to: ERIC ALLIN CORNELL (Biography) , WOLFGANG KETTERLE (Biography) and CARL EDWIN WIEMAN (Biography) for the achievement of BoseEinstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates. 2000 The prize is being awarded with one half jointly to: Zhores Ivanovich Alferov and HERBERT KROEMER for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in highspeed and optoelectronics and and one half to: JACK ST. CLAIR KILBY (Biography) for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit. 1999 The prize was awarded jointly to: and MARTINUS J.G. VELTMAN (Biography) for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics. 1998 The prize was awarded jointly to: ROBERT BETTS LAUGHLIN (Biography), HORST LUDWIG STORMER (Biography) and DANIEL CHEE TSUI (Biography) for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations.
1997 The prize was awarded jointly to: STEVEN CHU (Biography), CLAUDE COHENTANNOUDJI (Biography) and WILLIAM DANIEL PHILLIPS (Biography) for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light. 1996 The prize was awarded jointly to: DAVID M. LEE, DOUGLAS D. OSHEROFF and ROBERT C. RICHARDSON for their discovery of superfluidity in helium3. 1995 The prize was awarded for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics, with one half to: MARTIN L. PERL for the discovery of the tau lepton. and the other half to: FREDERICK REINES (Biography) for the detection of the neutrino. 1994 The prize was awarded for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter to: BERTRAM NEVILLE BROCKHOUSE (Biography) for the development of neutron spectroscopy CLIFFORD GLENWOOD SHULL (Biography) for the development of the neutron diffraction technique. 1993 The prize was awarded jointly to: RUSSELL A. HULSE and JOSEPH HOOTON TAYLOR JR. (Biography) for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation. 1992 GEORGES CHARPAK (Biography) for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber. 1991 PIERREGILLES DE GENNES (Biography) for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers. 1990 The prize was awarded jointly to: JEROME ISAAC FRIEDMAN, (Biography) HENRY WAY KENDALL (Biography) and RICHARD E. TAYLOR (Biography) for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics. 1989 One half of the award was given to: NORMAN FOSTER RAMSEY for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks. and the other half jointly to: and WOLFGANG PAUL (Biography) for the development of the ion trap technique. 1988 The prize was awarded jointly to: MELVIN SCHWARTZ and JACK STEINBERGER (Biography) for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino. 1987 The prize was awarded jointly to: KARL ALEXANDER MÜLLER for their important breakthrough in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials. 1986 The prize was awarded by one half to: ERNST AUGUST FRIEDRICH RUSKA (Biography) for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope. GERD BINNIG (Biography) and HEINRICH ROHRER (Biography) for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope. 1985 KLAUS VON KLITZING for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect. 1984 The prize was awarded jointly to: CARLO RUBBIA (Biography) and SIMON VAN DER MEER for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction. 1983 The prize was divided equally between: SUBRAMANYAN CHANDRASEKHAR for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars. WILLIAM ALFRED FOWLER ( Biography) for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe. 1982 KENNETH GEDDES WILSON (Biography) for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions. 1981 The prize was awarded by one half jointly to:
NICOLAAS BLOEMBERGEN (Biography) and ARTHUR LEONARD SCHAWLOW (Biography) for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy
and the other half to:
KAI M. SIEGBAHN for his contribution to the development of high resolution electron spectroscopy.Biography 1980 The prize was divided equally between:
JAMES WATSON CRONIN (Biography) and VAL LOGSDON FITCH (Biography) for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral Kmesons. 1979 The prize was divided equally between: SHELDON LEE GLASHOW (Biography) ABDUS SALAM and STEVEN WEINBERG for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including inter alia the prediction of the weak neutral current. 1978 The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: PYOTR LEONIDOVICH KAPITSA for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of lowtemperature physics http://www.zuta.de/npphys/salam.htm
and the other half divided equally between: ARNO A. PENZIAS and ROBERT WOODROW WILSON for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation. 1977 The prize was divided equally between: PHILIP WARREN ANDERSON (Biography), SIR NEVILL FRANCIS MOTT (Biography) and JOHN HASBROUK VAN VLECK (Biography) for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems. 1976 The prize was divided equally between:
BURTON RICHTER and SAMUEL CHAO CHUNG TING (丁肇中) for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind. 1975 The prize was awarded jointly to: BEN MOTTELSON and JAMES RAINWATER (Biography) for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection. 1974 The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR MARTIN RYLE and ANTONY HEWISH (Biography) for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars. 1973 The prize was divided, one half being equally shared between: and IVAR GIAEVER , for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively, and the other half to BRIAN D. JOSEPHSON for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects. Biography Brian D. Josephson 1972 The prize was awarded jointly to: JOHN BARDEEN (also 1956), LEON NEIL COOPER and JOHN ROBERT SCHRIEFFER for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCStheory. 1971 DENNIS GABOR for his invention and development of the holographic method. 1970 The prize was divided equally between: HANNES ALFVEN for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics LOUIS EUGEN FELIX NΙEL for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics. 1969 MURRAY GELLMANN for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions. 1968 LUIS WALTER ALVAREZ for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis. 1967 HANS ALBRECHT BETHE for his contributions to the theory ofnuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars. 1966 ALFRED KASTLER for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying hertzian resonances in atoms. Biography 1965 The prize was awarded jointly to: SINITIRO TOMONAGA ( 朝永 振一郎 ), JULIAN SCHWINGER (Biography) and RICHARD PHILLIPS FEYNMAN (Biography) for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deepploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles. 1964 The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: CHARLES HARD TOWNES the other half jointly to: NICOLAY GENNADIYEVICH BASOV (Николай Геннадиевич Басов ) and ALEKSANDR MIKHAILOVICH PROKHOROV for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maserlaser principle. 1963 The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: EUGENE P. WIGNER for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles and the other half jointly to: MARIA GOEPPERTMAYER (Biography) and JOHANNES HANS DANIEL JENSEN for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure. 1962 LEV DAVIDOVICH LANDAU for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium. 1961 The prize was divided equally between:
ROBERT HOFSTADTER (Biography) for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the stucture of the nucleons RUDOLF LUDWIG MÖSSBAUER for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name. 1960 DONALD A. GLASER for the invention of the bubble chamber. 1959 The prize was awarded jointly to:
EMILIO GINO SEGRE (Biography) and OWEN CHAMBERLAIN for their discovery of the antiproton. 1958 The prize was awarded jointly to: PAVEL ALEKSEYEVICH CHERENKOV,
IL'JA MIKHAILOVICH FRANK (Biography) and IGOR YEVGENYEVICH TAMM for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect.
1957 The prize was awarded jointly to: CHEN NING YANG ( 楊振寧 ) and TSUNGDAO LEE ( 李政道 ) for their penetrating investigation of the socalled parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary partic les. 1956 The prize was awarded jointly, one third each, to: WILLIAM BRADFORD SHOCKLEY, JOHN BARDEEN (also 1972) and WALTER HOUSER BRATTAIN for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect. 1955 The prize was divided equally between: WILLIS EUGENE LAMB for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum POLYKARP KUSCH for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron. 1954 The prize was divided equally between: MAX BORN for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction WALTHER BOTHE for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith.
1953 FRITS (FREDERIK) ZERNIKE for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope. 1952 The prize was awarded jointly to: FELIX BLOCH and EDWARD MILLS PURCELL (Biography) for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith. 1951 The prize was awarded jointly to:
SIR JOHN DOUGLAS COCKCROFT (Biography) and Biography ERNEST THOMAS SINTON WALTON for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially acce lerated atomic particles. 1950 CECIL FRANK POWELL for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method. 1949 HIDEKI YUKAWA for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces. 1948 LORD PATRICK MAYNARD STUART BLACKETT for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation. 1947 SIR EDWARD VICTOR APPLETON for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the socalled Appleton layer. 1946 PERCY WILLIAMS BRIDGMAN for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics. 1945 WOLFGANG PAULI for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle. 1944 ISIDOR ISAAC RABI for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei. 1943 OTTO STERN for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton. 19421940 The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section. 1939 ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artifi cial radioactive elements. 1938 ENRICO FERMI for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons. 1937 The prize was awarded jointly to: CLINTON JOSEPH DAVISSON and SIR GEORGE PAGET THOMSON for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals. 1936 The prize was divided equally between: VICTOR FRANZ HESS for his discovery of cosmic radiation CARL DAVID ANDERSON for his discovery of the positron. 1935 SIR JAMES CHADWICK for the discovery of the neutron. 1934 The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section. 1933 The prize was awarded jointly to PAUL ADRIEN MAURICE DIRAC for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory. 1932 WERNER HEISENBERG for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen. 1931 The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section. 1930 SIR CHANDRASEKHARA VENKATA RAMAN for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him. 1929 PRINCE LOUISVICTOR DE BROGLIE for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons. 1928 SIR OWEN WILLANS RICHARDSON for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him. 1927 The prize was divided equally between: ARTHUR HOLLY COMPTON (biography) for his discovery of the effect named after him CHARLES THOMSON REES WILSON (biography) for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour. 1926 JEAN BAPTISTE PERRIN for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium. 1925 The prize was awarded jointly to: JAMES FRANCK and GUSTAV HERTZ for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom. 1924 KARL MANNE GEORG SIEGBAHN for his discoveries and researchin the field of Xray spectroscopy. 1923 ROBERT ANDREWS MILLIKAN for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect. 1922 NIELS BOHR for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them. ALBERT EINSTEIN for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect. 1920 CHARLES EDOUARD GUILLAUME in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys. JOHANNES STARK for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields. MAX KARL ERNST LUDWIG PLANCK in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta. CHARLES GLOVER BARKLA for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements. 1916 The prize money for 1916 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR WILLIAM HENRY BRAGG and SIR WILLIAM LAWRENCE BRAGG for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of Xrays. MAX VON LAUE for his discovery of the diffraction of Xrays by crystals. 1913 HEIKE KAMERLINGHONNES for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia to the production of liquid helium. 1912 NILS GUSTAF DALEN for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys. WILHELM WIEN for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat. 1910 JOHANNES DIDERIK VAN DER WAALS for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids. 1909 The prize was awarded jointly to: GUGLIELMO MARCONI and CARL FERDINAND BRAUN in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy. GABRIEL JONAS LIPPMANN for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference. ALBERT ABRAHAM MICHELSON for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid. SIR JOSEPH JOHN THOMSON in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases. PHILIPP EDUARD ANTON LENARD for his work on cathode rays. LORD JOHN WILLIAM STRUTT RAYLEIGH for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies. The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: ANTOINE HENRI BECQUEREL in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity the other half jointly to: PIERRE CURIE and MARIE CURIE SKLODOWSKA in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel. The prize was awarded jointly to: HENDRIK ANTOON LORENTZ and PIETER ZEEMAN in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena. 1901 WILHELM CONRAD RÖNTGEN in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him.

