Athanasios Diakos

Athanasios Diakos, Hero of the Battle of Alamana. Painting by Dionysios Tsokos. National Historical Museum, Athens.

Athanasios Diakos (Greek, Αθανάσιος Διάκος) (1788-1821), a Greek military commander during the Greek War of Independence, was born Athanasios Nikolaos Massavetas (Greek, Αθανάσιος Νικόλαος Μασσαβέτας) in the village of Ano Mousounitsa, Phocis.

Early life

The grandson of a local klepht, he was drawn to religion from an early age and was sent away by his parents to the Monastery of St. John The Baptist (Greek, Αγίου Ιωάννου Προδρόμου) , near Artotina, for his education. He became a monk at the age of seventeen and, due to his devotion to his faith and good temperament, was ordained a Greek Orthodox deacon not long afterwards.

Popular tradition has it that while at the monastery, an Ottoman Pasha visited with his troops and was impressed by Athanasios's good looks. The young Athanasios took offence to the Turk's remarks (and subsequent proposal) and the ensuing altercation resulted in the death of the Turkish official. Athanasios was forced to flee into the nearby mountains and become a klepht. Soon afterwards he adopted the pseudonym "Diakos" (i.e. Deacon).

Klepht and Armatolos

Diakos served under a number of local klepht leaders in the region of Roumeli, distinguishing himself in various encounters with the Ottomans. He also served for a time as a mercenary in the army of Ali Pasha at Ioannina, Epirus, where he befriended Odysseas Androutsos, another klepht.

When Androutsos became the captain of a unit of armatoli at Livadeia, Diakos served for a time as his protopallikaro (lit. "first warrior", or lieutenant). In the years leading up to the Greek War of Independence, Diakos had formed his own band of klephtes and, like many other klepht and armatoli captains, had become a member of the Filiki Eteria.

Για δες καιρό που διάλεξε ο χάρος να με πάρει,
τώρα που ανθίζουν τα κλαδιά και βγάζει η γης χορτάρι".

Independence fighter

Soon after the outbreak of hostilities, Diakos and a local brigand captain and friend, Bousgos, led a contingent of fighters to capture the town of Livadeia. On 1 April 1821, after three days of vicious house-by-house fighting, and the burning of Mir Aga's residence, including the harem, the town fell to the Greeks. Hursid Pasha sent two of his most competent commanders from Thessaly, Omer Vryonis and Kiose Mehmet, at the head of 8,000 men with orders to put down the revolt in Roumeli and then proceed to the Peloponnese and lift the siege at Tripolitsa.

Diakos and his band, reinforced by the fighters of Panourgias and Dyovouniotis, decided to halt the Ottoman advance into Roumeli by taking defensive positions near Thermopylae. The Greek force of 1500 men was split into three sections. Dyovouniotis was to defend the bridge at Gorgopotamos, Panourgias the heights of Halkomata, and Diakos the bridge at Alamana.

Setting out from their camp at Lianokladi, near Lamia, the Ottoman Turks soon divided their force. The main force attacked Diakos. The other attacked Dyovouniotis, whose force was quickly routed, and then Panourgias, whose men retreated when he was wounded. The majority of the Greek force having fled, the Ottomans concentrated their attack on Diakos's position at the Alamana bridge. Seeing that it was a matter of time before they were overrun by the enemy, Bousgos, who had been fighting alongside Diakos, pleaded with him to retreat to safety. Diakos chose to stay and fight with 48 men; they put up a desperate hand-to-hand struggle for a number of hours before being overwhelmed.

The severely wounded Diakos was taken before Vryonis, who offered to make him an officer in the Ottoman army if he converted from Christianity to Islam. Diakos refused the offer. The next day he was impaled.His last words were.. "Εγώ Γραικός γεννήθηκα, Γραικός θε να πεθάνω" ("I was Born a Greek, I Shall Die a Greek").

The brutal manner of Diakos's death at hands of the Turks ( Being roasted on a spit) initially struck fear into the populace of Roumeli, but his final stand near Thermopylae, echoing the heroic defence of the Spartan King Leonidas, made him a martyr for the Greek cause.

A monument now stands at the bridge near Alamana, the site of his final battle. His birthplace, the village of Ano Mousounitsa, was later renamed Athanasios Diakos in his honour.

Athanasios Diakos , Memorial Sculpture in the Diakos Square in Lamia


  • Diamantopoulos, N., Kyriazopoulou, A., “Elliniki Istoria Ton Neoteron Hronon”, OEDB, (1980).
  • Brewer, David, “The Greek War of Independence”, The Overlook Press (2001). ISBN 158567172X.
  • Paroulakis, Peter H., "The Greeks: Their Struggle For Independence”, Hellenic International Press (1984). ISBN 0959089411.
  • Stratiki, Poti, “To Athanato 1821”, Stratikis Bros, (1990). ISBN 960726150X.

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