Medieval Byzantine Greek Warfare

Michael Lahanas

Byzantinische Armee, Kriegstechnik

Byzantine army

Byzantium at war: AD 600-1453, John F. Haldon

Romano-Byzantine armies 4th-9th centuries, David Nicolle

Byzantine Infantryman: Eastern Roman Empire C.900-1204, Timothy Dawson,Angus McBride

Byzantine armies, 886-1118, Ian Heath,Angus McBride

Medieval siege weapons: Byzantium, the Islamic world & India AD 476-1526, David Nicolle, Sam Thompson

Byzantine Dromon (Runner) Ship


The Byzantine war ship „Dromon“. It measured 45-50 meters in length and its crew was 100-300 men.

The Dromon is more accurately a product of reverse evolution, paring away the complexities of large galleys in search of simpler and more cost effective solutions. In the process the technology of the triremes and the polyremes was lost, never to be recovered, and the Dromon provided a foundation for a new cycle of naval development which produced ships which had little or no lineal connection with those of antiquity. THE BYZANTINE NAVY

Another Ship type was the Chelandion (Χελάνδιον)

J. H Haldon, M. Byrne, A possible solution of the Greek Fire

Roman Pump Technology 100 AD

Greek Fire, using a Cheirosifon, Heron of Byzantium

The main weapon was the Greek Fire or Sea Fire (pyr thalassion) that was used on ships like the dromone and that was used for example to destroy two large Arab fleets, but this invention is a byzantine invention. A Syrian engineer Kallinikos (or Callinicus) of Heliopolis is assumed to be the inventor of Greek Fire around 673 AD. More Information , The Oil Weapons: Ancient Oil Industries

A publication about Greek Fire, (requires free available DJVU Viewer)


Byzantine navy

Byzantine battle tactics

Cataphract

Weaponry

SIEGECRAFT Two Tenth-Century Instructional Manuals by “Heron of Byzantium” Denis F. Sullivan (PDF File)

Byzantine Warfare

The Fortification of Byzantium

The whole of Byzantine history is the record of struggles between a civilized state and wild, or half-civilized, neighbouring tribes. Again and again was the Byzantine Empire de facto reduced to the limits of the capital city, which Anastasius had transformed into an unrivaled fortress (Catholic encyclopedia)

Theodosian Walls, Klicks to enlarge

Fortification: The Land Walls (Computer Reconstruction)

Walls of Constantinople

Stephen Turnbull, Peter Dennis (Illustrator), The Walls Of Constantinople 324-1453 AD (Fortress) (Paperback) Osprey Publishing (UK) (November 15, 2004) ISBN: 184176759X

Constantine XI, the last Byzantine Emperor at the battlements, dawn of the 29th May of 1453" 200 X 145 cm,- oil on canvas, 2003 by Iannis Nikou

Battle of Ad Decimum
Battle of Anchialus
Battle of Callinicum
Fall of Constantinople
Battle of Dara
Battle of Dyrrhachium
Battle of Kleidion
Battle of Manzikert
Battle of Mons Lactarius
Battle of Myriokephalon
Siege of Nicaea
Battle of Nineveh (627)
Battle of Pelagonia
Battle of Pliska
Battle of Syllaeum
Battle of Taginae
Battle of Ticameron
Battle of Yarmuk

The Economic History of Byzantium: From the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century: Ships (PDF File)

Reports


Kekaumenos , Greco-Armenian author of the Strategicon

Constantine and the distribution of soldiers in the Empire ( A location science problem)


The Byzantine Generals Problem (PDF File) (1.2 MB)

The Organisation and Support of an Expeditionary Force: Manpower and Logistics in the Middle Byzantine Period

http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/strategikon/strategikon.htm

Medieval Sourcebook: Al-Baladhuri: The Battle Of The Yarmuk (636) and After

John Skylitzes ( Ιωάννης Σκυλίτζης), SYNOPSIS HISTORION The Battle of Kleidion, 29 July 1014

Skylitzes Military Images


http://www.arts.uwa.edu.au/classics/aabs/abstracts.htm


Kremasmata, Kabadion, Klibanion: Some aspects of middle Byzantine military equipment reconsidered


IMAGES


Soldier of Middle Byzantine Period, from Hosios Lukas

Reconstructions of the armour of Romans, Crusaders and Muslims.

Roman archery


Reproductions of the weapons Romans, Crusaders and Muslims


Ancient Greek Military Technology (Armor, Ships, Catapults, Polybola, Siege and Radiation Weapons, Links)

(The Catapults were developed first in ancient Greece and the literature of Philo of Byzantium, Heron of Alexandria was an important source in Byzantium)


Reports in German


Logistik Historie und Zukunft (logistike techne and military, Alexander, Byzantium, etc..) some remarks

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