Part 1 - Ancient Greece

Michael Lahanas


Dipylon Inscription

Αρχαία Ελληνική Λογοτεχνία

Greek alphabet
Α α Alpha Β β Beta Γ γ Gamma
Δ δ Delta Ε ε Epsilon Ζ ζ Zeta
Η η Eta Θ θ Theta Ι ι Iota
Κ κ Kappa Λ λ Lambda Μ μ Mu
Ν ν Nu Ξ ξ Xi Ο ο Omicron
Π π Pi Ρ ρ Rho Σ σ Sigma
Τ τ Tau Υ υ Upsilon Φ φ Phi
Χ χ Chi Ψ ψ Psi Ω ω Omega

Writing is a method to preserve information and probably the most important information is that used for the storage and trade of objects. It is probably not surprising that Phoenicians developed the first version of the Greek Alphabet. Greek website which claims that Herodotus was wrong)

... My favorite poet was Aeschylus. He wrote: "In our sleep, pain which cannot forget falls drop by drop upon the heart until, in our own despair, against our will, comes wisdom through the awful grace of God."... Let us dedicate ourselves to what the Greeks wrote so many years ago: to tame the savageness of man and make gentle the life of this world. ...Senator Robert F. Kennedy , Statement on the Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. Indianapolis, Indiana 4th April 1968 ( See also for information about the Kennedy version.)

The word Drama, comes from the Greek verb dran ("to act" or "to do") refers to actions or deeds performed in a theatrical setting for the benefit of the spectators

The word 'Tragedy', on which Aristotle discoursed at length, and concerning which philosophers still argue, comes from the Greek 'tragoidia' = 'tragos' (goat) + 'oide' (song) = goat-song". Richard Joyce of Sheffield University
(Derived either from the practice of sacrificing goats before the performance of tragedies or from the goat-skins worn by choruses.)
Sappho is one of the first women poets we know and some of her poems survived partly as fragments as here books were burned by Christians. Homer produced the first two Love stories. That of Hellen and Paris and Odysseus and Penelope. With Lysistrata (She who dissolves the army) we have the message that is still actual: “Make Love not War!” In 160 AD we have the first ancient Greek-Syrian Science Fiction Story!

"no Classical Greek plays on homoerotic themes survive, although we know that they existed, such as Aeschylus’s Myrmidons" maybe also due to religious reasons (according to some stories Pope Gregory VII ordered the destruction of the work of Sappho ) Curiosities of Literature


Decoded at last: the 'classical holy grail' that may rewrite the history of the world


Timeline of Greek Literature

A man with bad breath asked, "Dear why do you hate me?" And she answered, "Because you love me." Philogelos

Ancient Greek Jokes (Philogelos, the Laughter Lover), Philogelos in Greek

...the most beautiful, all-embracing theme is that of the Odyssey. It is greater, more human, than that of Hamlet, Don Quixote, Dante, Faust. I was twelve years old when we took up the Odyssey at school; only the Odyssey stuck in my memory. James Joyce

δεῖπνά μοι ἔννεπε, Μοῦσα, πολύτροφα καὶ μάλα πολλά , a parody of the Odyssey by Matron of Pitane

Homer ,

In 2004 a fourth poem of Sappho was discovered. Except 3 other poems 264 fragments with 63 complete lines of her work are known today .

Sappho , Pindar

A classic is something that everybody wants to have read and nobody wants to read. Mark Twain

Introduction to Greek Tragedy

Oresteia Trilogy (Comments) (Agamemnon - Choephoroi - Eumenides )

The Persians (Comments)

Achilles (Comments) (Myrmidons - Nereids - Phrygians)

Sophocles is wise (sophos) -Euripides wiser (sophoteros) - but wisest (sophotatos) of all men is Socrates. Oracle of Delphi

Pope Paul II played as a student Haemon the son of Creon ( Antigone of Sophocles). When he visited Poland he was asked by the crowd to talk about his life. He said that he played Haemon. Even old and after decades passed he knew the text.

The outlying villages, they say, are by them called komai, by the Athenians demoi: and they assume that comedians were so named not from komazein, "to revel," but because they wandered from village to village (kata komas), being excluded contemptuously from the city....

The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. Aristotle Poetics


“The Father of Lies”,

Herodotus History

The absence of romance in my history will, I fear, detract somewhat from its interest; but if it be judged useful by those inquirers who desire an exact knowledge of the past as an aid to the interpretation of the future, which in the course of human things must resemble if it does not reflect it, I shall be content. In fine, I have written my work, not as an essay which is to win the applause of the moment, but as a possession for all time. Thucydides - History of the Peloponnesian War, Book I

For the Freedom of the Rhodians

The Olynthiac Orations

The First Philippic

The Second Philippic

The Third Philippic

On the Crown

On the Peace

On the Naval Boards

For the Megapolitans

On the Chersonese

On Horsemanship

Plutarch's Lives: 15 Ancient Greek Heroes , Xenophon, Philosopher, Warrior, Author (The March of the 10700, Economy, History)

Lucians Science Fiction Story: Star wars, kidnapping by extraterrestrials, a trip to the moon in 160 AD,

Ancient Greek Literature Links

There is no better recreation for the mind than the study of the ancient classics. Take any one of them into your hand, be it only for half an hour, and you will feel yourself refreshed, relieved, purified, ennobled, strengthened; just as though you had quenched your thirst at some pure spring. Arthur Schopenhauer

Ancient Greek Humour, Alfred Guy Kingan L'Estrange

Modern Greek Texts

Sophocles, Oedipus the King (Modern Greek Text, PDF)

Euripides Electra (Modern Greek, PDF)

Aeschylus, Seven against Thebes (Modern Greek Text, PDF File)

Aristophanes, Lysistrata (Modern Greek Text, PDF)

Ancient Greece

Medieval Greece / Byzantine Empire

Modern Greece

Science, Technology , Medicine , Warfare
, Biographies , Life , Cities/Places/Maps , Arts , Literature , Philosophy ,Olympics, Mythology , History , Images

Science, Technology, Arts
, Warfare , Literature, Biographies
Icons, History

Cities, Islands, Regions, Fauna/Flora ,
Biographies , History , Warfare
Science/Technology, Literature, Music , Arts , Film/Actors , Sport , Fashion


Greek-Library - Scientific Library