Byzantines

Not identified Person, Early Byzantine Period

Not identified Person, Early Byzantine Period

Constantinian dynasty

St. Constantine I the Great (Constantinus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus Pontifex Maximus Pater Patriae Proconsul) (AD 272 - 337, ruled 306 - 337) – son of Constantius I Chlorus; left the empire redivided among his heirs; canonized

Constantius II (Iulius Constantius) (317 - 361, ruled 337 - 361) – son of Constantine I

Julian the Apostate (Claudius Iulianus) (331 - 363, ruled 361 - 363) – Pagan son-in-law of Constantine I, brother-in-law and first cousin of Constantius II, grandson of Constantius I

Non-dynastic

Jovian (Iovianus) (332 - 364, ruled 363 - 364) – Soldier, restored Christianity

    Valentinian-Theodosian dynasty

    Valentinian I (Valentinianus) (321 - 375, ruled 364) – Soldier, redivided the empire, taking the West

    Valens (Iulius Valens) (328 - 378, ruled 364 - 378) – brother of Valentinian I

    Gratianus (359 - 383, ruled 378 - 379) – son of Valentinian I

    Theodosius I the Great (346 - 395, ruled 379 - 395) – soldier; married to Valentinian I's daughter Galla

    Arcadius (377 - 408, ruled 395 - 408) – son of Theodosius I

    Theodosius II the Younger (401 - 450, ruled 408 - 450) – son of Arcadius

    Ste. Pulcheria (399 – 453, ruled 408 - 441, 450) – sister of Theodosius II; canonized

    St. Marcian (Marcianus) (392 - 457, ruled 450 - 457) – soldier; married Pulcheria after Theodosius's death; canonized by the Orthodox church

    Leonid dynasty

    Leo I the Thracian (Valerius Leo) (401-474, ruled 457 - 474) – soldier

    Leo II (467 - 474, ruled 474) – grandson of Leo I, son of Zeno

    Zeno (425 - 491, ruled 474 - 475) – son-in-law of Leo I; orig. Tarasicodissa, an Isaurian

    Basiliscus ( ? - c. 477, ruled 475 - 476) – usurper; brother-in-law of Leo I

    Zeno (ruled 476 - 491) – restored

    Anastasius I (430 - 518, ruled 491 - 518) – silentiarius; son-in-law of Leo I, elevated by selection by Zeno's widow Ariadne

    Justinian dynasty

    Justin I (Iustinius)(450 - 527, ruled 518 - 527) – commander of the guard

    St. Justinian I the Great (Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus)(482 - 565, ruled 527 - 565) – nephew and adoptive son of Justin I; canonized by the Orthodox church

    Theodora

    Justin II (Iustinius Iunior) (520 - 578, ruled 565 - 578) – nephew of Justinian I; mad

    Tiberius II (Tiberius Constantinus) (540 - 582, ruled 574, 578 - 582) – Comes Excubitris; adopted by Justin II

    Maurice (Mauricius Tiberius) (539 - 602, ruled 582 - 602) – son-in-law of Tiberius II

    Non-dynastic

    Phocas the Tyrant ( ? - 610, ruled 602 - 610) – usurper; betrayed by his son-in-law

    Heraclian dynasty

    Heraclius (or Ηράκλειος) (575 - 641, ruled 610 - 641) – usurper; son of the Armenian Exarch of Africa

    Constantine III Heraclius (Κωνσταντίνος Γ' Ηράκλειος) (612 - 641, ruled 641) – son of Heraclius; coemperor with Heracleonas

    Heracleonas (Heraclius II) Constantine (Ηρακλεωνάς) (626 - 641?, ruled 641) – son of Heraclius; mutilated and deposed

    Constans II Heraclius (Κώνστας Β' Ηράκλειος) (630 - 668, ruled 641 - 668) – son of Constantine III; assassinated by chamberlain

    Constantine IV the Bearded (Κωνσταντίνος Δ' ο Πωγώνατος ) (649 - 685, ruled 668 - 685) – son of Constans II

    Justinian II the Slit-nosed (Ιουστινιανός Β' ο Ρινότμητος) (668 - 711, ruled 685 - 695) – son of Constantine IV; mutilated, deposed, & exiled

      Non-dynastic

      Leontius (Λεόντιος) (ruled 695 - 698) – Strategos (general); mutilated, deposed, & imprisoned - later executed

      Tiberius III (Τιβέριος Γ' ο Αψίμαρος) (ruled 698 - 705) – German orig. named Apsimar; deposed & executed

        Heraclian dynasty

        Justinian II (ruled 705 - 711) – restored; deposed & executed

          Non-dynastic

          Philippicus Bardanes (Φιλιππικός Βαρδάνης) (ruled 711 - 713) – Armenian soldier; deposed & mutilated

          Anastasius II (Αναστάσιος Β') ( ? - 721, ruled 713 - 715) – orig. Artemios; secretary of Philippicus; deposed & entered monastery, later revolted & was executed

          Theodosius III (Θεοδόσιος Γ' ο Αδραμμυττηνός) (ruled 715 - 717) – tax-collector; abdicated & entered monastery

          Isaurian dynasty

          Leon the Isaurian against the Arabs

          Leo III the Isaurian (Λέων Γ' ο Ίσαυρος) (675 - 741, ruled 717 - 741) – Strategos

          Constantine V Copronymus (the Dung-named) (Κωνσταντίνος Ε' ο Κοπρώνυμος ή Καβαλίνος) (718 - 745, ruled 741) – son of Leo III; deposed

          Artabasdus the Icon-lover (Αρτάβασδος ο Εικονόφιλος) (ruled 741 - 743) – Leo III's chamberlain and son-in-law

          Constantine V (ruled 743 - 775) – restored

          Leo IV the Khazar (Λέων Δ' Χάζαρος) (750 - 780, ruled 775 - 780) – son of Constantine V

          Constantine VI the Blinded (Κωνσταντίνος ΣΤ') (771 - 797, ruled 780 - 797) – son of Leo IV; deposed and mutilated by mother

          Ste. Irene the Athenian (Ειρήνη η Αθηναία) (755 - 803, ruled 797 - 802) – wife of Leo IV, mother of Constantine VI; canonized by the Orthodox church; deposed & exiled to Lesbos

          Phocid dynasty

          Nicephorus, 811 AD, Constantine Manasses Chronicle 1345 Manuscript

          Nicephorus I Phocas (Νικηφόρος Α' Φωκάς) ( ? - 811, ruled 802 - 811) – Megas Logothetes; died in battle, skull used as wine cup

          Stauracius (Σταυράκιος Φωκάς) ( ? - 812, ruled 811) – son of Nicephorus I; paralyzed

          Michael I Rhangabes (Μιχαήλ Α' ο Ραγκαβέ) (ruled 811 - 813) – son-in-law of Nicephorus I & master of the palace; deposed & entered monastery

          Non-dynastic

          Leo V the Armenian (Λέων Ε' ο Αρμένιος) (775 - 820, ruled 813 - 820) – Strategos; assassinated

          Phrygian dynasty

          Michael II the Stammerer or the Amorian (Μιχαήλ Β' ο Τραυλός η Ψηλλος) (770 - 829, ruled 820 - 829) – Strategos, son-in-law of Constantine VI

          Theophilus (Θεόφιλος) (813 - 842, ruled 829 - 842) – son of Michael II

          Ste. Theodora (Θεοδώρα) (ruled 842 - 855) – wife of Theophilus; empress and regent for Michael III; canonized by the Orthodox church; deposed & entered monastery

          Michael III the Drunkard (Μιχαήλ Γ' ο Μέθυσος) (840 - 867, ruled 842 - 867) – son of Theophilus; assassinated

          Macedonian dynasty

          Basil I the Macedonian (Βασίλειος Α') (811 - 886, ruled 867 - 886) - married Michael III's widow; died in hunting accident

          Leo VI the Wise (Λέων ΣΤ' ο Σοφός) (866 - 912, ruled 886 - 912) – likely either son of Basil I or Michael III;

          Alexander III (Αλέξανδρος Γ' του Βυζαντίου) (870 - 913, ruled 912 - 913) – son of Basil I, regent for nephew

          Constantine VII the Purple-born (Κωνσταντίνος Ζ' ο Πορφυρογέννητος) (905-959, ruled 913 - 959) – son of Leo VI

          Romanus I Lecapenus (Ρωμανός Α' ο Λεκαπηνός) (870 - 948, ruled 919 - 944) – father-in-law of Constantine VII; coemperor, deposed by his sons & entered monastery

          Romanus II the Purple-born (Ρωμανός Β' ο Πορφυρογέννητος) (939 - 963, ruled 959 - 963) – son of Constantine VII , his wife was Theophano

          Nicephorus II Phocas (Νικηφόρος Β' Φωκάς ή Νικηφόρος Β' ο Φωκάς) (912 - 969, ruled 963 - 969) – Strategos; married Romanus II's widow, regent for Basil; assassinated

          John I Tzimisces (Ιωάννης Α' Κουρκούας ο Τσιμισκής) (925 - 976, ruled 969 - 976) – brother-in-law of Romanus II, lover of Nicephorus's wife but banned from marriage, regent for Basil

          Basil II the Bulgar-slayer (Βασίλειος Β' ο Βουλγαροκτόνος) (958 - 1025, ruled 976 - 1025) – son of Romanus II

          Constantine VIII (Κωνσταντίνος Η')(960-1028, ruled 1025 - 1028) – son of Romanus II; silent coemperor with Basil II

          Zoe I (Ζωή Α') ((c. 978 - 1050, ruled 1028 - 1050) – daughter of Constantine VIII

          Romanus III Argyrus (Ρωμανός Γ' ο Αργυρός) (968 - 1034, ruled 1028 - 1034) – eparch of Constantinople; Zoe's first husband, arranged by Constantine VIII; murdered

          Michael IV the Paphlagonian (Μιχαήλ Δ' ο Παφλαγών) (1010 - 1041, ruled 1034 - 1041) – Zoe's second husband

          Michael V the Caulker (Μιχαήλ Ε' ο Καλαφάτης) (1015 - 1042, ruled 1041 - 1042) – Michael IV's nephew, Zoe's adopted son

          Theodora (Θεοδώρα) (980 - 1056, ruled 1042) – daughter of Constantine VIII, coempress with Zoe

          Constantine IX Monomachus (Κωνσταντίνος Θ' ο Μονομάχος) (1000 - 1055, ruled 1042 - 1055) – Zoe's third husband

          Theodora (Θεοδώρα) (ruled 1055 - 1056) – restored

          Non-dynastic

          Michael VI the Bellicose (Μιχαήλ ΣΤ' ο Στρατιωτικός) (ruled 1056 - 1057) – chosen by Theodora; deposed & entered monastery

          Comnenid dynasty

          Isaac I Comnenus (Ισαάκιος Α' ο Κομνηνός) (c. 1007 - 1060, ruled 1057 - 1059) – soldier; abdicated in a fit of illness & entered monastery

          Doukid dynasty

          Constantine X Ducas (Κωνσταντίνος Ι' ο Δούκας) (1006 - 1067, ruled 1059 - 1067) – selected by Michael Psellus the Younger

          Michael VII Ducas Quarter-short (Μιχαήλ Ζ' Δούκας Παραπινάκης) (1050 - 1090, ruled 1067 - 1078) – son of Constantine X, originally coemperor with two brothers and Romanus; deposed & entered monastery

          Romanus IV and his wife Eudocia Makrembolitissa , who was also the wife of Constantine X

          Romanus IV Diogenes (Ρωμανός Δ' Διογένης) (1032 - 1072, ruled 1068 - 1071) – married Constantine X's widow; coemperor, deposed & mutilated to death

          Nicephorus III Botaniates

          Nicephorus III Botaniates (Νικηφόρος Γ' Βοτανειάτης) (1001 - 1081, ruled 1078 - 1081) – Strategos claiming descent from the Fabii, bigamously married Michael VII's wife; deposed & forced into monastery

          Comnenid dynasty (restored)

          Alexius I Comnenus (Αλέξιος Α' Κομνηνός) (1057 - 1118, ruled 1081 - 1118) – nephew of Isaac I, married Constantine X's grandniece ( Anna Dalassena , Irene Ducaena , Anna Comnena , Isaac Comnenus)

          John II Comnenus the Beautiful (Ιωάννης Β' Κομνηνός o Καλος) (1087 - 1143, ruled 1118 - 1143) – son of Alexius I, died of a hunting accident

          Manuel I Comnenus the Great (Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός ο Μέγας) (1118 - 1180, ruled 1143 - 1180) – son of John II
          ( Maria Comnena , Porphyrogenita )

          Alexius II Comnenus (Αλέξιος B' Κομνηνός) (1169 - 1183, ruled 1180 - 1183) – son of Manuel I; murdered with garrotte

          Andronicus I Comnenus (Ανδρόνικος Α' Κομνηνός) (1118 - 1185, ruled 1183 - 1185) – nephew of John II; married Alexius II's widow; deposed, tortured & executed; font of the Komnenid line in Trapezountas

          Angelid dynasty

          Isaac II Angelus (Ισαάκιος Β' Άγγελος) (1156 - 1204, ruled 1185 - 1195) – great-grandson of Alexius I, deposed & blinded

          Alexius III Angelus (Αλέξιος Γ' Άγγελος) (1153 - 1211, ruled 1195 - 1203) – brother of Isaac II, deposed by IV Crusade & eventually forced into monastery,

          Alexius IV Angelus (Αλέξιος Δ' Άγγελος) (1182 - 1204, ruled 1203 - 1204) – son of Isaac II, deposed & executed

          Isaac II Angelus (ruled 1203 - 1204) – largely witless, restored as coemperor with Alexius IV, deposed

          Alexius V Ducas the Bushy-eyebrowed (Αλέξιος Ε' Δούκας ο Μούρτζουφλος) (1140 - 1204, ruled 1204) – son-in-law of Alexius III

            Seal with inscription includes the Lascarid, Comnenid and Palaiologid Dynasty (Sfragis tou Eusebestatou Oikou ton Laskareon, ....)

            Laskarid dynasty (in exile in the Empire of Nicaea)

            Theodore I Lascaris (Θεόδωρος Α' Λάσκαρης) (1174 - 1222, ruled 1204 - 1222) – son-in-law of Alexius III

            John III Ducas Vatatzes (Ιωάννης Γ' Δούκας Βατάτζης) (1192 - 1254, ruled 1222 - 1254) – son-in-law of Theodore I; epileptic

            Theodore II Lascaris (Θεόδωρος Β' Λάσκαρης) (1221 - 1258, ruled 1254 - 1258) – son of John III

            John IV Lascaris (Ιωάννης Δ' Λάσκαρης) (1250 - 1305, ruled 1258 - 1261) – son of Theodore II, deposed, blinded & imprisoned by Michael VIII

            Palaeologid Dynasty (restored to Constantinople)

            Michael VIII Palaeologus (Μιχαήλ Η' Παλαιολόγος) (1224 - 1282, ruled 1259 - 1282) – Strategos, regent for John IV Lascaris; great-grandson of Alexius III Angelus

            Andronicus II Palaeologus the Elder (Ανδρόνικος Β' ο Γέρος) (1258 - 1332, ruled 1282 - 1328) – son of Michael VIII; abdicated

            Andronicus III Palaeologus the Younger (Ανδρόνικος Γ' Παλαιολόγος ο Νέος) (1297 - 1341, ruled 1328 - 1341) – grandson of Andronicus II

            John V Palaeologus (Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (1332 - 1391, ruled 1341 - 1347) – son of Andronicus III, deposed by John VI

            John VI Cantacuzenus (Ιωάννης Στ' Καντακουζηνός) (1292 - 1383, ruled outright 1347 - 1354) – father-in-law of John V; deposed & entered monastery as Ioasaph Christodoulus

            John V Palaeologus (ruled 1354 - 1376) – restored, deposed by Andronicus IV

            Andronicus IV Palaeologus (Ανδρόνικος Δ' Παλαιολόγος) (1348 - 1385, ruled 1376 - 1379) – son of John V, half-blinded following revolt, later succeeded & was deposed, revolted a third time

            John V Palaeologus (ruled 1379 - 1390) – restored, deposed

            John VII Palaeologus (Ιωάννης Ζ' Παλαιολόγος) (1370 - 1408, ruled 1390) – son of Andronicus IV

            John V Palaeologus (ruled 1390 - 1391) – restored

            Manuel II Palaeologus (Μανουήλ Β' Παλαιολόγος) (1350 - 1425, ruled 1391 - 1425) – son of John V

            John VII Palaeologus (ruled 1399 - 1402) – restored as coemperor

            John VIII Palaeologus, bust by Antonio Averlino also known as Filarete (Greek "lover of virtue")

            John VIII Palaeologus (Ιωάννης Η' Παλαιολόγος) (1392 - 1448, ruled 1425 - 1448) – son of Manuel II

            Constantine XI Palaeologus Dragatses (Κωνσταντίνος ΙΑ' Παλαιολόγος Δραγάτσης) (1405 - 1453, ruled 1449 - 1453) – son of Manuel II, never crowned, died on the walls

            Osmanli

            In 1453 Mehmed II overthrew the Byzantine Empire and claimed the title of Caesar; his successors continued this claim. See Osmanli for the complete list of Ottoman sultans.

              Palaeologid Dynasty (in exile)

              Thomas Palaeologus (Θωμάς Παλαιολόγος) (1409 or 10 - 1465) – brother of Constantine XI; died in exile in Rome

              Andreas Palaeologus (Ανδρέας Παλαιολόγος) (1453 - 1502) – son of Thomas; created Despot by Pope Pius II, self-styled imperator Constantinopolitanus; sold titles to Charles VIII in 1494 & granted the remainder to King Ferran II of Aragon and Queen Isabel of Castille in his will.

                --------------------------------

                Eustathius of Thessalonica

                George Acropolita

                Hierocles (author of Synecdemus)

                Johannes Cardinal Bessarion

                Philaretos Brachamios

                Hero of Byzantium

                Georgius Choeroboscus

                John the Eunuch

                Michael Choniates

                Nicetas Choniates

                Michael I Cerularius

                John Cinnamus

                Saint Cyril

                Chalcocondyles

                Michael III Doukeianos

                Patriarch Photius I of Constantinople

                Patriarch Germanus II of Constantinople

                Patriarch Michael I Cerularius of Constantinople

                John Malalas

                Michael Maleinos

                Bardas Mamikonian

                George Maniaces

                Francesco Maurolico , a Greco-Italian Postbyzantine scientist

                Mazaris

                Isidore of Miletus

                Saint Methodius

                Nicolaus Cabasilas

                Theodore Metochites

                Marcus Musurus

                Nicholas Myrepsos

                Nikephoros Ouranos

                Gregory Palamas

                Patriarch Photius I of Constantinople

                George Phrantza

                Michael Psellus image from the Monastery Pantokrator, Athos

                Michael Constantine Psellus

                Procopius of Caesarea , (Secret History)

                Bardas Skleros

                Theodore the Studite

                George Syncellus

                Jacob Baradaeus

                Theoktistos

                Loukas Notaras

                Georgius Chrysococces (gr. Georgios Chrysokokkis), Physician, Mathematician, Astronomer

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                See also Pope of Greek origin,Late Roman, Early Byzantine Period

                Pope Zosimus

                Pope Theodore I

                Pope John VI

                Pope John VII

                Byzantine aristocracy and bureaucracy

                Byzantine Empire, Books

                Women in Byzantium (Some Texts and Bibliography)



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