
Griechische Mathematik. Archimedische Polyeder There is an astonishing imagination in practical mathematics; and Archimedes had at least as much imagination as Homer, Voltaire Archimedes of Syracuse knew that there exist 13 convex semiregular polyhedra. The socalled Platonic polyhedra are formed from identical regular polygons. For example the cube is formed by 6 squares and the tetrahedron using 4 isosceles (all three sides have the same length) triangles. Archimedes considered the problem how many polyhedra can be obtained if we use 2 or more combinations of regular polygons. For example the “small rhombicosidodecahedron” can be formed by 20 isosceles triangles, 30 squares and 12 regular pentagons. There are only 13 possible semiregular polyhedra. These are called also Archimedean solids. Archimedes work about the semiregular polyhedra is lost but there are references made by the mathematician Pappus. Eureka, the Journal of the Archimedeans (Issue 53, 1994) Pappus of Alexandria (Πάππος ο Αλεξανδρεύς) (about 290350) AD is the author of Μαθηματική Συναγωγή, or shortly Συναγωγή (Synagoge) (Mathematical Collections), He describes the Archimedean solids in the 5^{th} book of the Synagoge: See http://www.mcs.drexel.edu/~crorres/Archimedes/Solids/Pappus.html for parts of Pappus text) Each face is a regular polygon, and around every vertex, the same polygons appear in the same sequence, for example, hexagon  hexagon – triangle in the truncated tetrahedron as can be seen from the picture at the start of the section. Two or more different polygons appear in each of the Archimedean solids, unlike the platonic solids which each contain only one single type of polygon. Classification
For the notations such as (3, 4, 3, 4) see: Info Source
Kepler and Luca Pacioli after Archimedes were interested in these solids. Pacioli showed a truncated icosahedron in his book De Divina Proportione published around 1509. A regular dodecahedron is shown in the stamp one of the 5 regular Platonic solids. For a more precise mathematical definition of these geometrical objects see Archimedean Polyhedra References Polyhedra, Peter R. Cromwell, Cambridge University Press, 1997. 451 pp. ISBN 052155432 The Works of Archimedes: Translation and Commentary, Vol. 1 Reviel Netz, Cambridge University Press 2004 The Works of Archimedes , Thomas Little Heath, Dover Publications, Incorporated 2002 LINKS Download PDF Files with paper models of the Archimedian and Platonic solids Do Mathematicians Think Logically? Translation from the fifth book of the "Collection" of the Greek mathematician Pappus of Alexandria Miscellaneous Poly, a shareware program for exploring and constructing polyhedra Marco Möller, Vierdimensionale Archimedische Polytope, PhD Thesis, Hamburg 2004 (German)

