Aristotle (Aristoteles) (Greek: Αριστοτέλης; Αριστοτέλης ο Σταγειρίτης (384 BC 7.3. 322 BC), philosopher, scientist (The Master of those who know), brother of Arimnestus and Arimneste.
The man was born, he worked, and then died. Martin Heidegger, German philosopher, A short biography of Aristotle presented in a lecture.
Aristotle was born at Stageira (or Stagira) on the peninsula Chalcidice. His parents were the physician Nicomachus (working for the Macedonian King Amyntas II) and Phaestis (his mother who died when he was a child). At the age around ten also his father died and the orphan Aristotle lived with his uncle Proxenus of Atarneus who was also his teacher in rhetoric and poetry. At the age of 18 he went to Athens where he was a student of Plato working later in the Academy until the death of his teacher. Probably he was dissapointed that not he but Speusippus, the nephew of Plato, was appointed as the next director of the Academy after Plato and so he left Athens and he went to the court of Hermias in Asia Minor. There he worked for around three years until the death of Hermias of Atarneus. He went for 1-2 years to Lesbos (where he did some biological research) and returned to Stageira after King Philip II asked him to work as a teacher of his son Alexander the Great (343 BC). Aristotle returned to Athens after Alexander started his expedition against Persia. He opened a school in Athens which was dedicated to Apollo Lykeios and for this reason known as the Lyceum (also known as the Peripatic School because Aristotle prefered to discuss problems walking with his students and others). After the death of Alexander the Great he left Athens since some Athenians were against Alexander and again Aristotle who was supported financially by Alexander. Aristotle went to Chalkis / Euboea (the birthplace of his mother), where he died one year later. His original books, written mainly in the period of the Lyceum, some in the form of dialogues, all lost. His work is mainly from lecture notes compiled by his students. For some period these written manuscripts were hidden by Neleus and his family (in order to prevent to be taken by the Attalids of Pergamon for their libraries) in a vault, or a cellar (together with the works of Theophrastus) in Scepsis. With some modifications almost 2 centuries after his death a collection, known as Corpus Aristotelicum published that contains probably also some additional work of students of his school. Aristotle had a child, Nicomachus, with Herpyllis, his second wife after his first wife Pythias, the niece of Hermias, died during the Lyceum years. Reading the parts of his work that survived we understand why Aristotle was one the most important universal scientists of all time (if not the most important). His work was almost forgotten because his ideas about God (The unmoved mover) were not conformal to Christian religion as that of Plato. Around the 12th century again he was rediscovered and his work was recognized and scholars transformed his ideas almost into a religion. The irony is that Aristotle was considered responsible that his wrong ideas delayed the development of science. The scholars did not apply the method of Aristotle to start with a review of the work of others with comments which ideas and why are wrong, a method usually followed in every scientific publication today. Most of his errors (but not only) were about physical /natural phenomena. Only more than 1500 years after Aristotle's death real experiments were performed.
Work of Aristotle
Part of the lectures notes, remain of an estimated 400 - 1000 works of Aristotle (dialogues) all lost.
On Heavens (Περὶ οὐρανοῦ)(De Caelo) translated by J. L. Stocks
Meteorology (Μετεωρολογικά)(Meteorologica) translated by E. W. Webster
The History of Animals (Περὶ τὰ ζῶια ἱστορίαι)(Historia Animalium), translated by D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson
On the Motion of Animals (Περὶ ζώιων κινήσεως), translated by A. S. L. Farquharson
On the Gait of Animals (Περὶ πορείας ζώιων), translated by A. S. L. Farquharson
On the Parts of Animals (Περὶ ζώιων μορίων), translated by William Ogle
On the Generation of Animals (Περὶ ζώιων γενέσεως), translated by Arthur Platt
On youth and old age, on life and death, on breathing, (Περὶ νεότητος καὶ γήρως, περὶ ἀναπνοῆς) translated by G. R. T. Ross
On Longevity and Shortness of Life (Περὶ μακροβιότητος καὶ βραχυβιότητος), translated by G. R. T. Ross
On Memory and Reminiscence (Περὶ μνήνης καὶ ἀναμνήσεως) , translated by J. I. Beare
On the Soul (Περὶ ψυχῆς) (De Anima) translated by J. A. Smith
On Sense and the Sensible (Περὶ αἰσθήσεως καὶ αἰσθητῶν)(De Sensu et Sensibilibus) translated by J. I. Beare
On Dreams (Περὶ ἐνυπνίων)(De Insomniis) translated by J. I. Beare
On Sleep and Sleeplessness (Περὶ ὕπνου καὶ ἐγρηγόρσεως), translated by J. I. Beare
On Prophesying by Dreams (Περὶ <ῆς καθ᾽ ὕπνον μαντικῆς), translated by J. I. Beare
Aristotle on being told that a person had been abusing him in his absence: “He may even beat me, if he likes, in my absence.” Being asked how we should treat our friends, he replied, “As we should wish our friends to treat us.” And to one who inquired how students should get on, he said, “Pressing on upon those who are before and not waiting for those who are behind.”
LOGIC ( Organon )
Posterior Analytics, (Ἀναλυτικὰ ὕστερα) translated by G. R. G. Mure
Topics (Τοπικά) translated by W. A. Pickard-Cambridge
On Sophistical Refutations (Περὶ σοφιστικῶν ἐλέγχων), translated by W. A. Pickard-Cambridge
Perseus Texts Eudemian Ethics (Ἠθικὰ Εὐδήμεια)
The outlying villages, they say, are by them called komai, by the Athenians demoi: and they assume that comedians were so named not from komazein, "to revel," but because they wandered from village to village (kata komas), being excluded contemptuously from the city....
Poetics, (Περὶ ποιητικῆς) translated by S. H. Butcher (Only a part survived)
Rhetoric, (Ῥητορικὴ τέχνη) translated by W. Rhys Roberts
Politics (Πολιτικά) translated by Benjamin Jowett (Only a part survived)
Perseus Texts The Athenian Constitution (Ἀθηναίων πολιτεία),
The "moved" mover
Aristotle's Syllogism : Logic takes form , A more advanced description of Aristotle on Mathematics, Logic (from Stanford University) ,
Aristotle and Astronomy (The Prime Mover), Physics and Metaphysics
Ancient Anatomy, including Aristotle
D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson and Charles Singer, Natural Science, Biology (Legacy of Greece)
The Early Greek Concept of the Soul Jan Bremmer, Princeton University Press; Reissue edition (October 1987)
Whatever Happened to the Soul? Scientific and Theological Portraits of Human Nature Warren S. Brown, Nancey C. Murphy, H. Newton Malony (Eds.) Augsburg Fortress Publishers (October 1998) Modern Ideas of Theology, Philosophy and Natural Science about the Soul and Body (Is there a soul body duality, does a soul exist?)
Aristotle, 5 Drachmae Coin 1976
Harvard University Press: Loeb Classical Library
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy