Andros (Άνδρος), an island of the Greek archipelago, the most northerly of the Cyclades, approximately 6 miles south east of Euboea, and about 2 miles north of Tinos. It is nearly 40 km (25 miles) long, and its greatest breadth is 16 km 10 miles. Its surface is for the most part mountainous, with many fruitful and well-watered valleys. Andros, the capital, on the east coast, contained about 2000 inhabitants in 1900. The island had about 18,000 inhabitants in (1900) with the density of 48.13/km². The 1991 census read 8,781. According to a 1992 Baedeker, the town of Andros still contains 2000 inhabitants, and the island's total is now 10,500.
Bacchanal at Andros , Rubens c. 1535
The island in ancient times contained an Ionian population, perhaps with an admixture of Thracian blood. Though originally dependent on Eretria, by the 7th century BC it had become sufficiently prosperous to send out several colonies, to Chalcidice (Acanthus, Stageira, Argilus, Sane). The ruins of Palaeopolis, the ancient capital, are on the west coast; the town possessed a famous temple, dedicated to Dionysus. In 480 BC it supplied ships to Xerxes and was subsequently harried by the Greek fleet. Though enrolled in the Delian League it remained disaffected towards Athens, and in 477 had to be coerced by the establishment of a cleruchy on the island; nevertheless, in 411 Andros proclaimed its freedom, and in 408 withstood an Athenian attack. As a member of the second Delian League it was again controlled by a garrison and an archon. In the Hellenistic period Andros was contended for as a frontier-post by the two naval powers of the Aegean Sea, Macedonia and Egypt. In 333 it received a Macedonian garrison from Antipater; in 308 it was freed by Ptolemy I of Egypt. In the Chremonidean War (266-263) it passed again to Macedonia after a battle fought off its shores. In 200 it was captured by a combined Roman, Pergamene and Rhodian fleet, and remained a possession of Pergamum until the dissolution of that kingdom in 133 BC. Before falling under Turkish rule, Andros was from A.D. 1207 till 1566 governed by the families Zeno and Sommariva under Venetian protection. After a few centuries, Cyclades joined the rest of Greece in 1912.
Andros (Chora or Hora), the capital of the island, is on a headland between two beaches. It has a mix of post-World War I neoclassical mansions with vernacular Cycladic houses. The town squares are paved with marble. At the end of the headland are two islands, the first linked to the mainland by a brick bridge a ruined Venetian castle and the second a lighthouse. There are three museums the rather bland Archaeological Museum, a exceptional Museum of Modern Art, and a Nautical Museum.
The main resort town is Batsi on the western coast which is popular with Greek tourists.
The island is famous for its mineral springs at Apoikia where the water comes out of a lionhead.
Palaeopolis, the ancient capital is mostly underwater.
Stenies, on the island's eastern coast near the beaches of Yialia and Piso Yialia, is probably the island's most picturesque village. However, the east coast of the island is not famed for its welcoming attitude to tourists, and historically, steps have been made to stem the flow of visitors, that have altered the landscape of neighbouring islands (notably Mykonos). There are no commercial distractions in Stenies.
A credible and extensive source about the history of Andros, can be found in the excellent book of Demetrius Paschalis 'Historia tis Nisou Andros', or in English, 'History of the Island Andros'. The book was first written in 1925 but published multiple times since and numbers over 1000 pages long written in 'Katharevousa' a form of modern Greek with elements of ancient Greek. It is not known if the book has been translated to any other language. The author includes interesting bits of information throughout, like the fact that Andros was a center for the worship of Dionysus and Isis or information on the Venetian families that ruled the island in the 1500s.
Division of the municipality of Andros, population 4107 in 2001
Pitrofos is a village , municipal department of Andros, alt. 350 m, population 305 in 2001.
Near Pitrofos is the church Taxiarchis tis Melidas from the 11th century. A neolithic settlement in the region Strofila was discovered.
Beaches in the region: Chalkolimonas and Apothikes.
Monastery Panachrantou Google Earth