Greece, Ancient Greek Technology

The chained pump of Philon ("mangani"). Photo : Augusta Stylianou Artist

Popular machine for pumping water of large differences in height that is used even today. It consisted of two closed parallel chains wrapped around a triangular upper construction and often a lower identical construction that sometimes had wings for its water-driven motion. The chains embedded wooden or metal vessels that had an opening at their upper part for the inflow of the abstractable water when they were at the lower point in their course and for the outflow of water when they were trapped at the higher point. The energy required for the movement of the wheel came from the built in water-driven wings of the lower triangular construction or from a cooperation treadmill (foot-powerer wheel)
Philon of Byzantium, Pneumatics, 65
Vitruvius On Architecture X, 4

From "Ancient Greek Technology" exhibition at the Evagoras & Kathleen Lanitis Centre in Carob Mill Limassol

Replicas and Reconstruction by Prof . Kostas Kotsanas and his students