The region of Argos was — and is — called the Argolid; the name is derived, via Latin, from the oblique case forms of its Greek name. The inhabitants of Argos were called Αργεῖοι, Argīvī in Latin, hence English Argives.
A Neolithic settlement was located near the central sanctuary of Argolis, removed 45 stadia from Argos, closer to Mycenae. The sanctuary was dedicated to "Argivian Hera". The main festival of that temple were the Hekatombaia, one of the major festivals of Argos itself. Walter Burkert (Homo necans, p. 185) connected the festival to the myth of the slaying of Argus Panoptes by Hermes. There have been speculations that Hermes' epitheton Argeiphontes, which was understood as "Argus-slayer" very early, is in fact related to the adjective argós "shimmering" or "quick", from a root arg- (PIE *arǵ-, hence also argyros, silver), with a meaning "shining brightly" or similar, and only secondarily connected with the toponym or mythological Argus.
Argos was a major stronghold of Mycenaean times, and along with the neighboring acropoleis of Mycenae and Tiryns became very early settlements because of their commanding positions in the midst of the fertile plain of Argolis.
In Homeric times it belonged to a follower of Agamemnon and gave its name to the surrounding district— the Argolid— which the Romans knew as Argeia. The importance of Argos was eclipsed by nearby Sparta after the 6th century BC.
Because of its refusal to fight in the Persian War, Argos was shunned by most other city-states. Argos remained neutral or the ineffective ally of Athens during the 5th century BC struggles between Sparta and Athens.
In the 12th century, a castle on Larissa hill was built. Argos fell to the Franks and the Venetians until 1463. The Turks ruled Argos after until 1686 when Argos fell again to the Venetians under Morosini until 1715. It was ruled by the Turks until the 1821 Greek War of Independence and was liberated in 1822.
Larissa (or Larisa) castle overlooking Argos [Source]
The modern city of Argos in Greece with a part of the excavation area of the classical Argos, seen from a high-up row of the ancient theatre
The town of Argos is the seat of the province of the same name, one of the three subdivisions of the Argolis prefecture. According to the 2001 Greek census, the city has a population of 27,550. It is the largest city in the prefecture, one of the few prefectures in Greece where the largest city in population is larger than the prefectural capital.
Considerable remains of the city survive and are a popular tourist attraction. Agriculture, however, is the primary economic activity in the area, with citrus fruits the predominant crop. Olives are also popular here.
Argos has a school, a lyceum, a high school, a church, banks, a police station, a post office, a castle a train station (Kalamata - Tripoli - Corinth) a water tower, a junior soccer team, and a square (plateia). Argos also has a museum and is called the Argos Archaeological Museum in Argos, Website
Communities and subdivisions
The two large communities of Argos and Kryonerion covers about three-thirds of the entire municipality.
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