Archidamus III

By the side of Sodamas stands Archidamus, son of Agesilaus, king of the Lacedaemonians. Before this Archidamus no king, so far as I could learn, had his statue set up by the Lacedaemonians, at least outside the boundaries of the country. They sent the statue of Archidamus to Olympia chiefly, in my opinion, on account of his death, because he met his end in a foreign land, and is the only king in Sparta who is known to have missed burial. Pausanias

Archidamos III King of Sparta, wrongly considered as Archimedes Naples National Museum

(in some older publications considered as Archidamos II)

Archidamus III (Greek:Αρχίδαμος, ), the son of Agesilaus II, was king of Sparta from 360 BC to 338 BC.

He led the Spartan forces both before and during his rule. Archidamus headed the force sent to aid the Spartan army after its defeat by the Thebans at the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC and was commander later during the fighting in the Peloponnese. He scored a victory over the Arcadians in 367 BC but was in turn defeated by them in 364 BC at Cromnus. In 362 BC he showed great courage in the defense of Sparta against the Theban commander Epaminondas. As king, Archidamus supported the Phocians against Thebes in the Sacred War of 355 –346. In 343 BC, the Spartan colony Tarentum asked for Sparta's help in the war against the Italic populations, notably the Lucanians. In 342 BC Archidamus arrived in Italy with a fleet and an army and fought against the barbarians, but in 338 BC he was defeated and killed under the walls of Manduria.

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