Perdiccas (d. May-June 320 BC) was one of Alexander the Great's generals. After Alexander's death in 323 BC he became main regent of all Alexander's empire.

He was son of Orontes, a descendant of the independent princes of the province of Orestis. As the commander of a battalion of heavy phalanx infantry, Perdiccas distinguished himself at the conquest of Thebes (335 BC), where he was severely wounded. Subsequently he held an important command in the Indian campaigns of Alexander. When Hephaestion unexpectedly died in 324 BC, he was appointed has successor as commander of the Companion cavalry and chiliarch (vizier).

In the settlement made after Alexander's death (323 BC) Alexander's generals agreed that Philip III of Macedon, an epileptic bastard son of Alexander's father Philip II of Macedon, and the unborn child of Alexander's wife Roxana should be recognized as joint kings. Perdiccas was appointed guardian and regent of entire empire. He soon showed himself intolerant of any rivals, and, acting in the name of the two kings (Roxana gave birth to a son, Alexander), sought to hold the empire together under his own hand. He had Meleager, the infantry commander, arrested and murdered. In 322 BC, he broke off his engagement with Nicaea, daughter of Antipater, because Olympias offered him the hand of Cleopatra, a sister of Alexander the Great.

Perdiccas' most loyal supporter was Eumenes, governor of Cappadocia and Paphlagonia. These provinces had not yet been conquered by the Macedonians. Antigonus (governor of Phrygia, Lycia and Pamphylia) refused to undertake the task when Perdiccas ordered him to. Having been summoned to the royal presence to stand his trial for disobedience, Antigonus fled to Europe and entered an alliance with Antipater, Craterus and Ptolemy against him.

Leaving the war in Asia Minor to Eumenes, Perdiccas marched to attack Ptolemy in Egypt. He reached Pelusium but failed to cross the Nile. A mutiny broke out amongst his troops, disheartened by failure and exasperated by his severity. Perdiccas was assassinated by his officers (Peithon, Antigenes, and Seleucus) sometime between 21 May and 19 June of 320 BC.

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Peter Green, Alexander to Actium, pp. 3-15

This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica.

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