Planetaria and Simulation

Suppose a traveller carried into Scythia or Britain the orrery recently constructed by our friend Poseidonius, which at each revolution reproduces the same motions of the sun, the moon, and the five planets that take place in the heavens every day and night, would any single native doubt that this orrery was the work of a rational being? Cicero

Athanasius Kircher's reconstruction of the sphere of Archimedes, imitating the motion of the planets with the aid of magnets. From Magnes, sive de Arte Magnetica (1643 ed.) p. 305

The mechanical device of

Eudoxus Hippopede Machine

Ptolemy's Equatorial Ring

Archimedes' Planetarium


Reviel Netz , The shaping of deduction in Greek Mathematics, A study in Cognitive History, 1999, Cambridge University Press

S V Zitomirskii, The "celestial globe" of Archimedes (Russian), Istor. Astronom. Issled. 14 (1978) 271-302

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