Callistratus of Aphidnae (Greek: Καλλιστράτος Kallistratos) was a friend of Callicrates, a political person and an Athenian orator of the 4th century BC, a strategos in 378 and was executed in 355. He was also the founder of Krinides which is now Philippi and arhcaeological site and an Archon of Athens.
Judged that the power of Thebes posed a threat for Athens then of the declining in Sparta, he was a craftsman of Callias of the peace treaty of 371 which recognizes the hegemony of Athens by the sea and Sparta on land. In 366 after the capture of Oropos of the tyrant of Eretria Thémison, he was accused of treason but he escaped the condemnation.
After the new failures in Athens, Callistratus fled for Macedonia and he was condemned that he died by contumancy in 361. He was accommodated by the king of Macedonia, Perdiccas III in which he was benefited from the financial expertise. Later, he founded Krenides or Daton with a group of colonists from Thasos. After the takeover of the area by Philip II of Macedon, he took refuge in Byzantium. He was executed in 355 BC.
He was an auther of several reforms notably with the Athenian fiscal administration: in 378, he set up the system proeisphora by which 300 Athenians among the richest placed in load of 100 symmoria represented each 1/100th of the total taxable amount according to the eisphora, one exception is that they must advance with the public treasury. It imposed the allied cities of Athens to pay contributions (syntaxeis) for taking part in the effort of war.
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