< Attica

Attica

Greece

Politics and government of Greece

Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attikí) is a nomos (prefecture) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece.

Attica is located in what is today southern Greece, and covers about 3,800 square kilometers. In addition to Athens, it contains within its area the cities of Piraeus, Eleusis, Megara, Laurium, and Marathon, as well as the islands of Salamis, Aegina, Poros, Hydra, Spetses, Kythira, and Antikythera. About 3,750,000 people live in the nomos, of which more than 95% are habitants of the Athens metropolitan area.

Athens was originally the capital of Central Greece.



Geography

Attica is a peninsula jutting into the Aegean Sea. Mountains divide the peninsula into the plains of Pedia, Mesogeia, and Thriasia. The mountains include Hymettus, the eastern portion of Geraneia, Parnitha, Aigaleo and the Penteli mountains. To the north it is bordered by the Boeotian plain and to the west it is bordered by Corinth. The Saronic Gulf lies to the south and the island of Euboea lies off the north coast. Athens' first and only large reservoir named Lake Marathon is about 35 km northeast and is called the Marathon Dam which first opened in the 1920s. Since that time, it is Attica's largest lake. Forests cover the area around Parnitha, around Hymettus and into the northeast and the north in the hills and the mountains except for the mountaintops but the mountains to the west and the south are grassy, barren or forested.

The Cephisus River is the longest river, and Parnetha or Parnitha is the tallest mountain in Attica. The prefecture also has parklands in the Hymettus, Penteli and the Parnitha mountains and the southern part of the peninsula.

According to Plato, Attica ancient boundaries were fixed by the Isthmus, and that in the direction of the continent they extended as far as the heights of Cithaeron and Parnes. The boundary line came down in the direction of the sea, having the district of Oropus on the right, and with the river Asopus as the limit on the left.

Climate

Its climate includes hot summers and cool to mild winters in low lying areas and its plains and most of the Saronic. Winter is very common in the mountains of Parintha and areas that lie 1,000 m above sea level at its lowest.

In the winters of 1999 and February 2004, recent snowstorms plundered the area especially blocking and closing much of its roads as snow accumulated to 2 m.

History

The process of how Attica was united by Athens is not entirely clear, but it concluded at some point in the first half of the 7th century BC when Eleusis and the surrounding plains were joined to the Athenian state, and its inhabitants became citizens. Even then, the boundaries were not fixed, as Athens struggled with Megara for control of Salamis, and with Boeotia over border towns like Oropus for centuries. See History of Athens.

Attica later became part of (successively) the Roman and Byzantine Empires, the crusader Duchy of Athens, and the Ottoman Empire, until the Greek War of Independence.


Transportation

Roads and Highways

The area is connected by roads and highways:

Greece Interstate 1 (superhighway)
Greece Interstate 3 (old higway of Athens-Thessaloniki)
Greece Interstate 8 (old highway linking Patras, the Peloponnese and Athens)
Greece Interstate 8A (superhighway)
Greece Interstate 54, Marathonos Avenue
Greece Interstate 79
Greece Interstate 81
Greece Interstate 83
Greece Interstate 85 (rare)
Greece Interstate 89
Greece Interstate 91
Attiki Odos, number 6 (private owned superhighways), first opened in 2001 in the eastern part
Hymettus Ring (number 64), opened in 2004, the southern section will open later.
Aigaleo Ring (number 65), opened in 2004
Ano Liosia Ring (opening soon)

Other

Athens Mass Transit System
Athens Metro
Proastiakos
Transit System (Attica)

Communications

Statistics
Capital: Athens
Area: 3,808 km² Ranked 9th
Inhabitants: 3,841,408 Ranked 1st
Pop. density: 1,009/km²
Code for the municipalities 21xx, Athens,
03xx, eastern Attica Peninsula
11xx, Eleusis,
40xx, Piraeus, Saronic, Troizina
Hydra, Spetses, Kythira
Number of prefectural sects 4
Number of provinces 2
ISO 3166-2: GR-A1 (old: GR-02)
Area codes: 210, 229x0, 27340
Postal code: 1xx xx except Kythera
801 00 in Kythera
Car designation: YO, YT, YX, YY, YZ, ZB-ZZ

Television

Mega Channel - Athens
Antenna TV - Athens
Star Channel - Athens
Alpha TV - Athens
Alter Channel - Athens
902 TV - Athens
High TV - Athens
Magic Peiraia - Piraeus

Radio Station

Sporting teams

Hospitals

Agios Panteleimonas Hospital - Nikaia
Eleusis Hospital - Eleusis
Laikon Hospital - Zografou
Agios Panteleimonas Hospital - Nikaia
Metropolitan Hospital - Athens
Tzaneio Hospital - Piraeus
Asklipio - Voula
Eginition Hospital - Athens
Evgenidion Hospital - Athens
Evangelismos Hospital -Athens

Municipalities

List of municipalities of Attica

Prefectural sects of Attica (agglomeration)

The prefectures that make up the periphery of Attica include:

Municipalities of Athens

Agia Paraskevi | Agia Varvara | Agioi Anargyroi | Agios Dimitrios | Aigaleo | Alimos | Amarousi | Argyroupoli | Athens | Chaidari | Chalandri | Cholargos | Dafni | Ellinikon | Filothei | Galatsi | Glyfada | Ilio | Ilioupoli | Iraklio | Kaisariani | Kallithea | Kamatero | Kifissia | Lykovryssi | Melissia | Metamorfosi | Moschato | Nea Chalkidona | Nea Erythraia | Nea Filadelfeia | Nea Ionia | Nea Smyrni | Neo Psychiko | Palaio Faliro | Papagou | Pefki | Peristeri | Petroupoli | Psychiko | Tavros | Vrilissia | Vyrona | Ymittos | Zografou

(Non-municipal) Communities of Athens prefectural department

Ekali | Nea Penteli | Penteli

Municipalities of East Attica

Acharnes | Agios Stefanos | Artemis | Avlona | Gerakas | Glyka Nera | Kalyvia Thorikou | Keratea | Kropia | Lavreotiki | Marathon | Markopoulo Mesogeias | Nea Makri | Paiania | Pallini | Rafina | Spata | Vari | Voula | Vouliagmeni

(Non-municipal)Communities of East Attica

Afidnes | Agios Konstantinos | Anavyssos | Anoixi | Anthousa | Dionysos | Drosia | Grammatiko | Kalamos | Kapandriti | Kouvaras | Kryoneri | Malakasa | Markopoulo Oropou | Nea Palatia | Oropos | Palaia Fokaia | Pikermi | Polydendri | Rodopoli | Saronida | Skala Oropou | Stamata | Sykamino | Thrakomakedones | Varnava

Municipalities of the Piraeus prefectural department

Aegina | Agios Ioannis Rentis | Ampelakia Salaminas | Drapetsona | Hydra | Keratsini | Korydallos | Kythira | Methana | Nikaia | Perama | Piraeus | Poros | Salamina | Spetses | Troizina

(Non-municipal) Communities of the Piraeus prefectural department

Angistri | Antikythira

Provinces of the Piraeus prefectural department

Aigina | Kythira

Municipalities of West Attica

Ano Liosia | Aspropyrgos | Eleusis | Erythres | Fyli | Mandra | Megara | Nea Peramos | Vilia | Zefyri

(Non-Municipal) Communities of West Attica

Magoula | Oinoi

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